Economics for solid feedstock indirect FT process plants are further confused by carbon regulation. Generally, since permitting a CTL plant without CCS will likely be impossible, and CTL+CCS plants have a lower carbon footprint than conventional fuels, carbon regulation is expected to be balance-positive for synthetic fuel production. But it impacts the economics of different process configurations in different ways. The NETL study picked a blended CBTL process using 5-15% biomass alongside coal as the most economical in a range of carbon price and probable future regulation scenarios. Unfortunately, because of scale and cost constraints, pure BTL processes did not score well until very high carbon prices were assumed, though again this may improve with better feedstocks and more efficient larger scale projects. 
Yes. Crumb rubber infill, made from reclaimed tires, is a popular infill option for many synthetic turf fields. It has been safely utilized since being introduced in 1997, and in playgrounds and tracks for much longer. This resilient material provides enhanced durability and safety. Its use in synthetic turf sports fields and landscape has also kept more than 105 million used tires out of landfills. Crumb rubber has been critically examined and studied since the late 1980's. Science has proven it to be safe for children and people of all ages (see Research and Latest Thinking and Crumb Rubber FAQs to learn more).
A biosensor refers to an engineered organism, usually a bacterium, which is capable of reporting some ambient phenomenon such as the presence of heavy metals or toxins. In this capability, a very widely used system is the Lux operon of Aliivibrio fischeri .  The Lux operon codes for an enzyme which is the source bacterial bioluminescence , and can be placed after a respondent promoter to express the luminescence genes in response to a specific environmental stimulus.  One such sensor created in Oak Ridge National Laboratory , and named "critter on a chip", consisted of a bioluminescent bacterial coating on a photosensitive computer chip to detect certain petroleum pollutants . When the bacteria sense the pollutant, they begin to luminesce.