1069 subjects age 7–90 participated in the normative database for CNSVS. Test-retest reliability (TRT) was evaluated in 99 Ss who took the battery on two separate occasions, separated, on the average, by 62 days; the results were comparable to those achieved by equivalent conventional and computerized tests. Concurrent validity studies in 180 subjects, normals and neuropsychiatric patients, indicate correlations that are comparable to the concurrent validity of similar tests. Discriminant validity is supported by studies of patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia, post-concussion syndrome and severe traumatic brain injury, ADHD (treated and untreated) and depression (treated and untreated). The tests in CNSVS are also sensitive to malingerers and patients with conversion disorders.
If a young man's low testosterone is a problem for a couple trying to get pregnant , gonadotropin injections may be an option in some cases. These are hormones that signal the body to produce more testosterone. This may increase the sperm count. Hedges also describes implantable testosterone pellets, a relatively new form of treatment in which several pellets are placed under the skin of the buttocks, where they release testosterone over the course of about three to four months. Injections and nasal gels may be other options for some men.
Estrogen dominance causes PMS, which in turn is caused by low progesterone levels in comparison to estrogen in the body. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is the most common complaint among women. In the 1930s, PMS was described as a “state of unbearable tension”, and was likely written by a man who had never experienced it first hand. 7 Some women have PMS from the beginning of their menstrual cycles, but most women do not develop it until their mid-thirties when hormone levels start to fluctuate. Many of the most common PMS symptoms coincide with symptoms of progesterone deficiency and can include joint pain, water retention, breast tenderness, headaches, mood swings, and poor sleep patterns.