Animal welfare groups claim that animal husbandry and urine collection methods used in the production of Premarin cause undue stress and suffering to the mares involved. Animal activists have made claims of abuses ranging from inadequate stall size, long periods of confinement, cumbersome urine collection, and continuous breeding cycles. After reaching advanced age, many of the mares are adopted for recreation use, while some are sent to feed lots for slaughter. Despite the controversy, the USDA called the Premarin HRT industry a model of self-regulation. 
However, in December 2004 the United States the 14-member Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory committee, plus voting consultants, for Reproductive Health Drugs unanimously rejected Procter and Gamble's fast-track request for Intrinsa citing concerns about off-label use . In Canada, post-menopausal women have been able to obtain government-approved testosterone treatment since 2002. In Australia, post-menopausal women can use Organon testosterone implants which have to be surgically inserted and last from three to six months.